Hindi and Urdu Since 1800: A Common Reader by Christopher Shackle and Rupert Snell. London, School of Oriental and African Studies; and New Delhi, Heritage, 1990. This study of the history and development of modern Hindi and Urdu looks at the composite ancestry of these sister languages in Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and English. The main section of the book consists of a series of sample passages in Urdu and Hindi; each passage represents a stage in the development of the language and has some aspect of language itself as its primary focus. The book is now out of print, and the Hindi Urdu Flagship is glad to make it available in PDF format. We are grateful to Professor Frances Pritchett of Columbia University for her help and support in this. Click on titles within the table of contents below to view section details and download links. Each introductory section and text is available as an individual pdf. Alternatively, you can download the entire book as a single PDF.